Gender and Agricultural

Gender Transformative Research in Development

Workshop Report: AAS-2012-31 
Past efforts to integrate gender into agricultural research and development practice have failed to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice.

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Tool Kit on Gender Equality Results and Indicators

Asian Development Bank (ADB), December 2013

This tool kit aims to assist development practitioners to ensure that gender perspectives are incorporated into development initiatives, and to monitor and evaluate gender equality results.It presents a menu of gender equality outcomes, results, and indicators that may be selected or adapted by users. The tool kit will assist specialists in particular sectors to identify gender equality results and indicators; it may also be used by gender specialists who work across a range of sectors.

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Glasgow Caledonian University (GCU),Centre for Research on Innovation and Science Policy (CRISP) and Cirrus Management Services (CMS) 2009

This website/Resource CD is about promoting a new consultative process for designing gender-sensitive demand-led programmes for rural women.This design process addresses some of the major limitations in the existing approaches used to support rural women. The description of the methods with live examples from the field (3 states of India) would assist those who are keen to experiment with better approaches. For more details click on www.reachingruralwomen.org

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The Gender in Agriculture Source book

This presents a rich compilation of experiences, some of them ongoing, in which agricultural projects have incorporated gender-related components or adapted their operations to allow for gender variables and engage issues that affect men and women differently. Women continue to face greater difficulties in accessing information, extension, advisory services, and education as well as in owning or acquiring land and technology compared to men. Research, extension, and education systems need to engage women, who comprise more than half of resource-limited farmers, small-scale food processors, and many local traders, if agricultural science hopes to lead to agricultural development. See Module 7 on Gender in Agricultural Innovation and Education for more details.

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Gender in Value Chains

Practical Tool Kit to integrate a gender perspective to agricultural value chain development

Extension services could play an important role in making sure that women too benefit from value chain development. Small producers, especially women, are often excluded from higher value domestic and export markets. To ensure that rural women and their communities benefit fully from value chain employment opportunities, a combination of measures should be considered. This tool kit from Agri-ProFocus Learning Network intends to motivate and help practitioners in integrating a gender perspective in agricultural value chain development, by providing practical tools for all stages in the value chain intervention.

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JAEE Special Issue: Gender Inequality and Agricultural Extension 

The five articles in this issue consider diverse aspects of gender and agricultural extension, focusing on experiences from two regions, Asia and Africa. The authors, who draw on their extensive knowledge and experiences of research on gender and extension, address different aspects related to gender and extension, such as gender differences in technology adoption (Ragassa et al.),designing gender-sensitive anddemand-led programmes for women (Jafry and Sulaiman), farm mechanisation and women (Alex), child labour, especially the issue of girl children (Murray) and exploring gender in the innovation process (Kingiri). The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension Vol 19, Issue. 

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Closing the gender gap in agriculture: A trainer’s manual by Kathleen E. Colverson

This Trainer’s manual has useful information covering different aspects of ensuring gender equity in agricultural development. This document contains guidelines for facilitators and practitioners including practical tips for making these training sessions participatory and lively.

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Gender Equality and Food Security—WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AS A TOOL AGAINST HUNGER
Asian Development Bank, July 2013

There is a strong relationship between gender-based discrimination and the different channels through which households and individuals access food—through own-production, access to waged employment, or social protection. The report shows that while equality of treatment between women and men and food security are mutually supportive, gender equality remains an elusive goal in many parts of Asia and the Pacific. A transformation of traditional gender roles is urgently needed. Such a transformation should build on improved information about the range of inequalities and specific constraints facing women. In addition, in order for gender equality strategies and food security strategies to complement each other and for their synergies to be maximized, a combination should be found between the recognition of the constraints women face, the adoption of measures that help relieve women of their burdens, and the redistribution of gender roles in the discharging of family responsibilities. The report explores how this combination can be achieved, identifying the best practices that have emerged both in the Asian and Pacific region and in other parts of the world.

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Women''s Collective Action: Unlocking the potential of agricultural markets
Baden Sally, 2013, Oxfam International

Which categories of women smallholders participate in collective action in agricultural markets and why?What economic and wider benefits do women smallholders gain from their participation in collective action in agricultural markets?How, and to what extent, does collective action help women smallholders overcome key barriers to their engagement in markets?Which strategies by development actors are most effective in promoting equitable benefits for women from their engagement in collective action in agricultural markets?This research study addresses these questions based on quantitative and qualitative research carried out in Ethiopia, Mali and Tanzania. 

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WE ARE NOT TOO POOR TO SAVE Solutions for the Poorest: Insights on Savings Behavior of Clients,Grameen Foundation and the Livelihood School April 2013

Why would someone already grappling with harsh poverty set aside a tiny portion of their low and unstable income for future needs? And, how much could they save and how often? This study examines the savings behavior of ultra-poor women in Gaya District, Bihar, India and challenges some of our preconceived beliefs and provide new insights for other savings initiatives targeting the ultra-poor.

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Gender and Climate Change Research in Agriculture and Food Security for Rural Development,
CCAFS and FAO (2012)

The Guide provides users with resources and participatory action research tools for collecting, analysing and sharing gender-sensitive information about agricultural communities, households and individuals who are facing climate changes. This guide is intended for agricultural development professionals who are: using field-based research in their work to respond to the impacts of climate change,preparing for future climate risks and impacts of climate change; and/or modifying agricultural practices to reduce contributions to climate change.

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Gender issues are central to FAO’s mandate to achieve food security for all.
Don’t miss FAO’s Policy on Gender Equality:

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Climate-Smart Agriculture is “Smarter” When Informed by a Gender Perspective

Dr Lamia El-Fattal – WOCAN  September 2012
Climate-smart agriculture is currently being hailed as a multi-sectoral approach to help meet global food security,while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions. How will climate-smart agriculture affect women farmers and gender relations? What policies and activities can be enacted to ensure that women, as well as men, farmers benefit from such an approach?

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Turning Agriculture into Agribusiness:Overcoming Institutional Barriers to Rural Women’s Entrepreneurship Dr Lamia El-Fattal – WOCAN

In the three areas that impose endemic barriers to rural women’s entrepreneurship—access to land, access to credit and the business of setting up a business—there are relatively simple, cost-effective, and concrete solutions that governments, donors, and civil society can implement to help rural women become better entrepreneurs.

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Gender Transformative Research in Development

Past efforts to integrate gender into agricultural research and development practice have failed to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice. A GENDER TRANSFORMATIVE APPROACH (GTA) goes beyond just considering the symptoms of gender inequality, and addresses the social norms, attitudes, behaviors and social systems that underlie them. The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) has placed the GTA at the heart of its gender strategy. 

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The proceedings of the first Global Conference on Women in Agriculture is available at:

 


 

 

 

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Mainstreaming Gender into Project Cycle Management in the Fisheries Sector M. C. Arenas and A. Lentisco

Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations Regional office for Asia and the Pacific Bangkok, 2011

This handbook make an important contribution to help ensure gender concerns are explicitly recognized and addressed in project activities both in South and Southeast Asia and beyond.

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Learning from eight agricultural development interventions in Africa and South Asia         

Edited by Agnes Quisumbing, Ruth Meinzen-Dick,Jemimah Njuki,and Nancy Johnson International Food Policy Research Institute,November 2013 

The Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project (GAAP) aims to promote women’s ownership and control of productive assets in developing countries by evaluating how  well agricultural development projects improve men’s and women’s access to assets and identifying ways to reduce gender gaps. The notes in this collection summarize the results of GAAP’s work with partner projects and identify ways development practitioners can evaluate their projects’ impact on men’s and women’s assets, livelihoods, and well-being.

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Reducing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Extension and Advisory Services - How to Find the Best Fit for Men and Women Farmers

Authors: Cristina Manfre, Deborah Rubin, Andrea Allen, Gale Summerfield, Kathleen Colverson, Mercy Akeredolu, 2013

The paper identifies the underlying principles associated with high levels of success in reaching women and men farmers and how, in differing contexts, the core principles have been successfully adapted to fit local conditions in establishing productive, profitable and sustainable relationships with individual producers, the private sector and associated research and education institutions. It explores the significance of gender relations for the design, operation, and monitoring of agricultural extension and advisory services and provides a summary of key issues and debates on gender issues in agricultural extension and advisory services, and draws on case material to highlight these issues.

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Policy Brief AAS-2013-12

Transforming gender relations: Key to positive development outcomes in aquatic agricultural systems, CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. 
Paula Kantor This brief makes the case that a more political and transformative approach to integrating gender in agricultural research and programming is needed in order to respond to the challenges of poverty and food insecurity.

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Integrating Women''s Economic Empowerment into M4P Approaches  

February 2013, Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida)
Analysis of the different market functions of women and men in a given economic sector and the factors that affect their respective participation is critical for making markets work for the poor (M4P).

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Gender in Agriculture Closing the Knowledge Gap

The resulting book, Gender in Agriculture:Closing the Knowledge Gap, is a compendium of what we now know about gender gaps in agriculture and why such gaps matter.

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GFRAS - Gender Equality in RAS-Gender Equality in Rural Advisory Services

This brief explains the concept of gender equality in rural advisory services can create for global and local food production, women’s economic empowerment, household food security, and nutrition. It summarises experiences of how gender equality can be pursued in advisory services and provides some practical examples.

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Increasing access to agricultural extension and advisory services: how effective are new approaches in reaching women farmers in rural areas?

Project Report, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) 2014

In many developing countries, rural populations are heavily dependent on agriculture as well as different social services for their livelihoods. Yet access to adequate knowledge, improved technologies, financial services and other relevant social services remains a critical issue.

This paper points to the need for implementing innovative practices based on a gender equitable approach to rural service delivery which should apply at the farmer, provider and policy levels to reduce gender gaps in accessing agricultural advisory services.

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Gender Equality Capacity Assessment Tool UN WOMEN, 2014

Though developed primarily for UN Agencies and their partners, this tool is relevant for all organisations who are interested in promoting gender equality. The tool includes an easy-to-implement questionnaire and guidelines. It is divided into the following sections:  the understanding, knowledge and skills that staff have on gender equality, women`s empowerment, gender policy and architecture of their organization, and guidelines on how to consolidate the outcomes of the questionnaire.

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Experiencing and coping with change: women-headed farming households in the Eastern Gangetic Plains Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt (2014) ACIAR

This report is based on a survey into the issues, concerns and challenges of women-headed farming households in the Eastern Gangetic Plains – one of the poorest parts of the world, marked by male out-migration and deteriorating livelihoods.

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Women’s Empowerment at the Frontline of Adaptation: Emerging Issues, Adaptive Practices, and Priorities in Nepal 

ICIMOD Working Paper 2014/3 (2014)
Gurung, D. D.; Bisht, S.

This paper examines the impacts of climate change in Nepal, and how the resulting increase in rural women’s workload has affected women’s health, income, safety, nutrition and social, economic, and political empowerment.

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Gender and Inclusion Toolbox: Participatory Research in Climate Change and Agriculture

The CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), 2014

This manual introduces a wide range of participatory strategies and tools for research to guide the implementation of climate smart agriculture and efforts to achieve food security in rural communities. It is intended for NGO practitioners and program designers interested in diagnostic and action research for gender sensitive and socially inclusive climate change programs.

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Communication interventions for gender equality and social equity in aquatic agricultural systems: A review of the literature World Fish Centre, 2014

This literature review addresses a gap in existing research by identifying the role of gender equality and social equity related communication components in Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) and agricultural interventions. This critical review of peer-reviewed and gray literature in AAS and agriculture will identify opportunities for future work and inform the design and implementation of relevant communication interventions.

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Does diversification of rice-based systems always lead to gender equity? A case study from Bangladesh 
Kamala Gurung and Humnath Bhandari (2014), CAPSA

Rice-based farming systems in Bangladesh have been diversifying and changing with an expansion of monoculture commercial aquaculture farming (CAF) in rice fields over the past decades, in particular of fish, shrimp, and prawn. This paper examines the transformation in rice-based agricultural systems and the implications of CAF for gender roles and relations and household food security.

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Gender and Food Security Bridge

Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton (Jan 2015)

This In Brief argues that tackling gender injustice and truly empowering women is not only a fundamental prerequisite for improving food and nutrition security. It needs to be seen as a goal in its own right. In Brief sets out a preliminary vision for gender-just food and nutrition security, which puts the right to food and gender justice at the centre of all interventions. Two case studies, produced collaboratively with food security actors, provide inspiring examples of gender-transformative interventions in India and among Maya Chorti communities.

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