INDIA

Issues in Indian Agricultural Extension

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Where can we publish extension research?-A Note

The following questions bother many who are keen to publish their research on extension.
 Can we publish our papers only in journals having “extension” in their title?
 Which are the other journals where we could publish findings of extension research?
 Why many other social science journals that publish articles related to extension not being considered for career advancement purpose by organizations like ICAR and SAUs (in India)?
 As professionals, should we do something to include many more professionally ratedhigh impact social science journals in indices which are used for judging professional achievement?
 But are we sufficiently aware of the wide range of available journals where we could publish our work? 

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Working Group on Agricultural Extension

Report of the Working Group on Agricultural Extension for Agriculture and Allied Sectors for the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17), Government of India is currently available online.

http://planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp12/agri/wg_agriextn.pdf

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Extension-Plus: New Roles for Extension and Advisory Services

Sulaiman, R.V., (2012)
This paper illustrates “extension-plus” approach that strengthens the capacity of     extension and advisory services to play much wider role.

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Innovation and Research by Private Agribusiness in India.

Pray, C.E and Nagarajan, L., (2012)
This paper focuses on private sector research and innovation. It measures private research and innovation in India where agribusiness is making major investments in research and producing innovations that are extremely important to farmers.
 
 
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The Relevance of Content in ICT Initiatives in Indian Agriculture

Glendenning, C.J and Ficarelli, P.P., (2012)

This paper examines the content development and management processes occurring in six well-known ICT projects in Indian agriculture.
 
 
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ICTs and Empowerment of Indian Rural Women: What can we learn from on-going initiatives?

Sulaiman, V.R., Kalaivani, N.J., Mittal, N and Ramasundaram, P., (2011)
 
This paper explores the role of ICTs in empowering Indian rural women, through a review of ICT initiatives in India. The paper concludes that that while most of the ICT initiatives are disseminating new information and knowledge useful for rural women, many are not able to make use of it, due to lack of access to complementary sources of support and services.

http://www.crispindia.org/docs/CRISP%20Working%20Paper-ICTs%20and%20Empowerment%20of%20Women.pdf

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Review of Agricultural Extension in India.

Marco, F and Zhou, Y., (2011).
This paper reviews the evolution of agricultural extension in India and discusses the institutional reforms such as ATMA and the growing number of private and informal providers of extension in the country.

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Evaluation of Value-Added Agricultural Advisory Services: Case Study of Agriclinics in Southern India.

Glendenning, C.J., Babu, S.C and Okyere, K.A., (2011).
This paper evaluates farmers’ usage of the program agriclinics and agribusiness centers and explores the extent to which certain extension services can or should be privatized in India.

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Review of Agricultural Extension in India: Are Farmers’ Information Needs Being Met?

Glendenning, C.J., Babu, S and Okyere, K.A., (2010)
This paper aims to ascertain why farmers are not accessing information and where information gaps exist, despite the variety of extension approaches in India.

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Agricultural Extension, the Private Sector and the Value Chain

Marco Feroni 2009
This presentation highlights the relevance of private sector’s role in agricultural extension

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Reforming the Agricultural Extension System in India: What Do We Know About What Works Where and Why?

Raabe, K., (2008)
This paper reviews existing reform programs and strategies currently existing in agricultural extension in India.

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A decentralized, participatory, market-driven extension system: The ATMA model in India.

Swanson, B., Singh, K.M and Reddy. M.N., (2008).
The presentation discusses the evolution of ATMA programme- a decentralized, farmer-led, market-driven extension system involved a major shift in extension focus and approach.

http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/S05a2-Swanson.pdf (ppt)

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Extension plus: Towards Opportunities and Challenges.

Sulaiman R.V and Hall, A.J., (2004)
This paper outlines both the scope of extension-plus and the value of learning-based approaches to developing extension innovations and discusses the challenges for extension reform of promoting a learning-based approach in public bodies.

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Agricultural Extension- Involvement of Private Sector.

Sulaiman, V.R., (2003).
This paper examines the implications of witnessed declining support for public extension and emergence of a wide range of extension service providers in the private sector for Indian agriculture, keeping in view the emerging challenges, and discusses potential options for strengthening public sector extension and promoting private initiatives and public-private partnerships in extension.

http://www.nabard.org/fileupload/databank/occasionalpapers/oc%2029.pdf

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Training Need Assessment: Training Needs of University Teachers in Classroom Teaching Behavior

Anup Prakash Upadhyay & Gyanendra Sharma
LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Imparting education in the field of agriculture is one of the three main functions (teaching, research, extension) of agriculture universities. Though agricultural universities and colleges are producing large number of agricultural graduates, there are concerns on their quality. This book is not only an attempt to find out the current Training needs of university teachers but also gives an insight of theoretical background on which such studies could be conducted further.

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Dairy Knowledge Information System: An Indian Perspective: Knowledge System Analysis in Indian Dairying

Jancy Gupta (2012)
LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (ISBN-13: 978-3-659-14672-5)
Research on Knowledge Systems has evoked great interest amongst Extension professionals all over the world. This book explores the perspectives of Dairy Knowledge Information System (DKIS) in Indian context and analyses the extent of linkages among various actors in the system using actor-linkage matrix. 

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Funding and Delivering Agricultural Extension in India

Sulaiman, V.R., (2003)
This paper reviews the evolution of the Indian extension system, and discusses its current status by comparing the performance of the different types of extension organizations.

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Privatizing agricultural extension in India.

Sulaiman, V.R. & Sadamate, V.V. (2000).
This paper investigates the role of public, co-operative, private organisations and other information sources in extension ascertaining its effectiveness, understanding the capacity and willingness of farmers to pay for extension services and providing policy level inputs and guidelines for initiating structural changes in the organisational set up.

http://www.ncap.res.in/upload_files/policy_paper/pp10.pdf

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Livestock technology transfer service in India: A review

Mahesh Chander, Triveni Dutt, R K Ravikumar and B Subrahmanyeswari (2010)
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol 80, (11)
This paper reviews the livestock extension scenario in India and the authors conclude that the State Departments of Animal Husbandry, which is the major stakeholder for livestock development in India is mostly dominated by animal health concerns with negligible attention to production related advice to farmers.

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Mass Media In Agricultural Extension

B. Lahiri, S. D. Mukhopadhyay and Prof. M. M. Adhikary (2012)

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Livestock Extension Education

V.Venkatasubramanian and S.V.N.Rao
This could serve as a good text book for under graduate teaching in Livestock Extension.

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Achievements and Challenges in Agricultural Extension in India

Marco Ferroni and Yuan Zhou
This paper looks at extension in relation to both primary production and market links, and acknowledges the contributions of all providers of extension in India, public as well as private. 

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New Dimensions and Approaches in Extension Pluralism for Rural Development

AUTHOR: J. Vasanthakumar, H. Philip, R. K. Theodora & M. S. Nataraju 2007
This papers included in the book cover a wide range of issues related to the seminar conducted on "National Seminar on Extension Pluralism for Rural Development" and associated aspects. Articles include research studies that have been conducted in different parts of the country on the subject.

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ICTs: Digital Opportunities in Agricultural Extension

Edited by Dipak De, Basavaprabhu and Shaik N. Meera
The book entitled "ICTs: Digital Opportunities in Agricultural Extension" deals with pre-requisites for harnessing ICT potentials. This book also deals with fundamentals of ICT applications, search engine and web designing, digital mediation in agricultural sector, ICT applications in allied sectors and ICT and legal issues, thus the book helps in empowerment of extension fraternity through media education, dealing with the concepts related to empowerment, types of empowerment and empowerment through ICT application.

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New from IFPRI on agricultural extension

Leveling with Friends: Social Networks and Indian Farmers’ Demand for Agricultural Custom Hire Services
posted :23 Jan 20147:30 AM
Technology can serve as a catalyst in agriculture, shifting farmers from subsistence to profit, and spurring dramatic quality of life improvements for the rural poor in many developing countries. New technologies can also help farmers contend with the mounting challenges to food security brought about by a changing climate. The million dollar question is how to best get these new technologies to the very farmers who need them. 

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SHGs: Paving Pathways to Possibilities NABARD, Head Office, March 2014. 

Women from poor households are the key architects of the SHG-Bank Linkage Programme. Beyond the traditional skills, they have showcased their organizational skills and collective power through the SHG-bank linkage programme. The compilation of case studies, documents many such convergence possibilities which offers not merely opportunities to supplement income level of the women SHG members, but also improves the efficacy and effectiveness of service delivery by the governmental system.

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Agricultural Extension Education 

The world’s population in the underdeveloped countries are living the life of poverty. This area encompasses South-east Asia, Africa and Middle-east. These countries were for many years/centuries under foreign rule and subjected to exploitation. As a result, state of ignorance, superstitions, unhealthy environment and illiteracy took roots in these countries. India is also one of these countries, which was under foreign rule. In India, 60% people are in the grip of poverty and about 67% people are illiterate.

http://nsdl.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/307/1/AGRICULTURAL+EXTENSION+EDUCATION.pdf

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Strengthening Agricultural Extension and Advisory Systems: Procedures for Assessing, Transforming and Evaluating Extension Systems

This book was written by Burton Swanson, with inputs from and overall guidance by Riikka Rajalahti (Senior Agricultural Specialist, Agricultural and Rural Development Department (ARD), Task Team Leader). This book is partly based on an e-Learning Course (2008) undertaken under the guidance of Eija Pehu (Adviser, ARD).

http://www.donorplatform.org/resources/63/file/2010_WB_Swanson_Rajalahti_Strenghthening-Agricultural-Extension-and-Advisory-Systems.pdf

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Training Manual of Model Training Course On Market Led Extension (18-25 September, 2012)

The focus of the extension functionaries need to be extended beyond production. Farmers should be senitized on various aspects on quality, consumer’s preference, market intelligence,processing and value addition and other marketing information.This will help the farming community to realize high returns for the produce, minimize the production cost and improve the product value and marketability. In this regard the organization of such training programmes is not only timely but also extremely effective in reorientation of the farming community to market driven agricultural practices.

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Livestock  Extension Education 

The concept of extension with a focus on livestock extension, development process and goals, extension approaches, communication and adoption of technologies and various livestock development programmes are discussed briefly.

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Review of Agricultural Extension in India Are Farmers’ Information Needs Being Met?

The paper examines the challenges and constraints of each agricultural extension approacTraining Manual of Model Training Course On Market Led Extension (18-25 September, h as it attempts to provide farmers with access to information that is relevant to their farm enterprises. As a result of this analysis, opportunities are identified for increasing extension services’ effectiveness and efficiency in reaching smallholder farmers. Research gaps are also identified. The review concludes that there is an increasing need to work in partnership and to share knowledge and skills in order to provide locally relevant services that meet the information needs of marginal and smallholder farmers in India.

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Agricultural Extension  

Public research and extension has played a major role in increasing production and productivity in agriculture and allied sectors in the past. The nature and scope of agricultural extension has undergone fundamental changes since then. Transferring research results on farmers’ fields is an important challenge facing us today. The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation has taken several initiatives to revitalize the agriculture extension system in the India.

http://agricoop.nic.in/AnnualReport06-07/AGRICULTURAL%20EXTENSION.pdf

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Web Based Agricultural Extension In India

In the absence of collective and coordinated efforts by the above said institutions, ICTshave not penetrated rural India despite time, money and efforts invested so far.Initiatives of NIC and ICAR may have to be pursued jointly by all the public institutions such as a Ministry of IT, Agriculture and Rural Development.

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ICTs for Agricultural Extension in India: Policy Implications for Developing Countries

ICTs are changing all the spheres of human lives. Hence, it is a popular belief that, agricultural extension also no exception to this. It is also expected that the ICT led extension systems are going to act as a key agent for changing agrarian situation and farmers’ lives by improving access to information and sharing knowledge. Hence, renewed enthusiasm to use new ICTs for agricultural advisory services led to mushrooming of e-initiative pilots in India. Development practitioners are experimenting innovative ICT initiatives exclusively for agricultural information and knowledge delivery.

http://www.afita.org/graph/web_structure/files/Seminar%20(17)-02.pdf

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Agricultural Extension Services Provided by Cooperatives

Experimentation in agriculture is a slow process because the results of experiments are tested and verified over and again. Each step is recorded and scientifically analysed with a view to ensure that the results are sound and profitable to the end users – the farmers. The results, which have been carefully verified, need to be released for general application. The process of transfer of research findings to farmers is agricultural extension.

http://www.ica-ap.coop/sites/default/files/articles_8.pdf

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Private Extension in India: Myths, Realities, Apprehensions and Approaches

Nutritional security is the next most important area, which needs the attention of extension worker simultaneously. Besides, we have to prepare the farmers to face the challenges of implications of WTO on Indian Agriculture. The extension focus would be on quality, cost of production, value addition, market led extension and cyber application in Agriculture. These challenges require the change in the role of present extension.

http://Private%20Extension%20Article.pdf

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Funding and Delivering Agricultural Extension in India 

The number and types of organizations providing extension services in India have shown an increase over the last two decades. The Department of Agriculture (DoA) continues to dominate extension. Public sector extension needs to make conscious efforts to learn from ongoing institutional experiments and should be restructured with the necessary skills and capacities to integrate information and expertise available in different organizations.

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Synergising Agricultural Extension Services in Knowledge Transfer: Success Stories of ATMA in India

Key Agricultural Extension Reforms covers institutional reforms, managerial reforms and financial reforms. Diversification triggered by the adequate market support. It only indicates the strong commercial sense of the farmers in marketing. Biodiversity and climatic factors provide a significant edge for introduction of new crops. It further reinforce the utility of SREP. Exposure visits and farmer to farmer extension are the strong leads to promote large scale adoption. ATMA as a platform facilitate and promote organic linkage among various stakeholders.

http://globalfoodchainpartnerships.org/india/Presentations/MN%20Reddy.pdf

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Cyber Extension: A Convergence of ICT and Agricultural Development 

Indian agriculture is now in a post-green revolution era and a larger pie of developmental efforts is being constructed particularly for those who are in the rural areas. Developing the capacity of agro-based rural communities through cyber extension with the use of ICT will create opportunities of growth and prosperity and give a chance to Indian Agricultural markets for creating a more efficient information and knowledge network. This paper showcases the utilization of ICT for building capacities of agricultural markets through cyber extension.Key words: Cyber Extension, Agricultural Development, Agricultural Markets, Information and Communication Technologies, Gyandoot.

http://www.caluniv.ac.in/Global%20mdia%20journal/Winter%20Issue%20December%202011%20Commentaries/C-6%20Ahuja.pdf

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Delivery Mechanism of Agricultural Extension Services to Farmer in India: An Overview

Indian agriculture is in practice with traditional knowledge blended with new scientific knowledg. The economic development, technological development and social development of the society has forced to the extension scientists to exercise the different approach and strategies. The paper discuss diferent strategies and approach and required policy modifications. Key words: Indian agricultur; Traditional knowledge; Scientific knowledge; Transfer the technology.

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Redefining Agricultural Education and Extension System in Changed Scenario

Economic liberalization and WTO regime pose a big challenge to Indian agriculture. To cope up with changed global scenario, agricultural education and extension would have to be redefined. This is a major concern for academics and policy makers. An approach to our own problems will have to be worked out. This, in turn, warrants reforms in agricultural educational systems.

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Agricultural Extension in India: Challenges Ahead 

This paper discusses the various issues related to agricultural development in India with special reference to extension. Furthermore, it suggests the ways to develop a system that may work more effectively in the country like India.

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Republic of india extension and advisory services 

India is located in South Asia, adjoining the Indian Ocean in the south, the Bay of Bengal in the south-east and the Arabian Sea in the south-west. Due to its huge physical size and with a population of over 1.2 billion people, the country is also known as the Indian subcontinent. India is currently one of the fastest growing economic powers in the world although still faced with the problems of rapidly growing population, poverty, illiteracy and malnutrition. India’s capital is New Delhi.

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The State of Agricultural Extension Reforms in India: Strategic Priorities and Policy Options

Agricultural extension in India has undergone several changes since independence. Still, a large number of smallholder farmers and other vulnerable groups remain unreached by the public extension system. A number of organizational performance issues hinder the effectiveness and efficiency of public extension system. 

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e-Arik: ICTs for Agricultural Extension Services to the Tribal Farmers

The reports indicated that 45 per cent of the world’s ICT projects implemented in India. And also Asia’s highest number of information kiosks implemented across rural India (Chattopadhyay, 2004; Manzar, 2004). In addition, Government of India policy proposed a knowledge centre in every village by 2007 (Swaminathan, 2005). However, the most of the ICT projects are implemented in the socio- economically developed states of India. There is no village level ICT initiative in the poorest tribal population dominated eight states of North-East India. 

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The Impact of ICT on Agricultural Extension Services Delivery: Evidence from the Rural e-services Project in India

This study examines the impact of a mobile phone technology enhanced service delivery system on agricultural extension services delivery in India. An impact analysis is carried out based on randomised survey data taking into account of potential systematic selection bias through double difference techniques and reflexive comparisons. Findings from the research show that the amount and quality of the services and the speed of services delivery have been improved significantly as a result of the intervention. There are also indirect benefits from this ICT-enhanced services delivery system not only in greater awareness and knowledge in agriculture technology and information but also in terms of farmers’ attitudes towards trying new technology and new ways of life in the future. Evidence from the evaluation suggests that disadvantaged farmers benefit more from this intervention than those who are better off.

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Digital Green: Participatory Video for Agricultural Extension

Digital Green is a research project that seeks to disseminate targeted agricultural information to small and marginal farmers in India using digital video. The unique components of Digital Green are (1) a participatory process for content production, (2) a locally generated digital video database, (3) human-mediated instruction for dissemination and training, and (4) regimented sequencing to initiate a new community.

http://aijsh.org/setup/socialscience/paper593.pdf

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Extension Education: A Key for Agriculture Development in India

The presented review paper discusses the role of extension services and trend of extension development in India, along with the advances in agriculture. This would also cover the trend of agriculture growth and several extension development programmes undertaken before and after independence. Role of extension has to be understood even more than simply transfer of technology. This would also help us to know the information that are needed by the farmer as well as sources of those information that would help in spread of new extension information ultimately leading to agriculturally prosperous nation.

http://aijsh.org/setup/socialscience/paper593.pdf

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Competency development in Agricultural Education and Extension: analysis and advocacy

The paper is based on NARS policy papers and reviews on Agriculture education and extension. The manuscript depicts the challenges, solutions, recommendations for Agriculture education and extension. The authors are in opinion that there is need of involvement of various stake holders for making Agriculture more useful, enterprising and employable.

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Assessing the training needs of agricultural extension workers about organic farming in the North-Western Himalayas

A review of the literature indicates variations and deficiencies in knowledge, skills and ability among extension personnel (e.g. Wheeler, 2007, 2008). For the present investigation, the training needs of agricultural extension officers were investigated (a) to identify the training needs of extension personnel and (b) to determine the relationship, if any, between three independent variables (age, educational qualification, and service experience) and training needs.

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Addressing the Biotechnology Information Needs of Agricultural Extension Workers in India

Biotechnology information workshops were held in five Indian states to address the information needs of public and private sector agricultural extension workers. Telephone interviews were undertaken with a random selection of delegates from three states to assess the effectiveness of the workshops and the usefulness of information materials distributed at the workshops.

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Distance Agricultural Education: Perspectives In Agricultural Development In India

With ever increasing demand for higher education in agriculture and allied subjects in India, the conventional SAUs and other schools were left with inadequate resources for meeting the demand. Thus the Distance Education System shouldered the responsibility of agricultural education to some extent.

http://www.col.org/pcf3/papers/pdfs/nimbadkar_etal.pdf

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Agricultural Credit in India: Status, Issues and Future Agenda

Settled agriculture in India has had a long history because of the fertile plains of Northern India irrigated by the Indus, the Ganga-Jamuna river systems and the Brahmaputra in the East. Southern India has its own river systems and has, moreover, been characterised by its impressive history of sophisticated water management systems: perhaps among the most developed historically. As a consequence of this natural fertility and abundant availability of water, ironically, population density grew early in India, and along with that different degrees of poverty.

http://rakeshmohan.com/docs/AgricreditBulletin.pdf

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How to Make Agricultural Extension Demand-Driven?

This essay discusses various options for providing and financing agricultural advisory services, which involve the public and private sectors as well as a third sector comprising nongovernmental organizations and farmer-based organizations. We review the market and state failures, and the community failures (failures of non-governmental and farmer-based organizations) inherent in existing models of providing and financing agricultural extension services and then outline strategies to address those failures and make extension demand-driven. Then we examine India’s Policy Framework for Agricultural Extension, which has demand-driven extension as one of its major objectives, and review available survey information on the state of extension in India.

http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/pubs/pubs/dp/ifpridp00729.pdf

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Farmer-led Extension: Experiences and Road Ahead

The present day agriculture is defined by key concept of stability, sustainability, diversification and commercialization. In the last decade, the agricultural situation in India has undergone a tremendous change in the light of liberalization and establishment of World Trade Organization (WTO).

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Production Driven To Market Driven Extension Approach

It’s need of the hour to make extension approach market driven instead of production driven. Agricultural production has increased significantly in last decade. We are claming of record food grains production of 241 million tones. Still farmers are committing suicide; it means they are not getting remunerative price for their produce. As about 90% our efforts are production oriented and only 10% are market oriented. With the globalization of market, farmers need to transform themselves from mere producers-sellers in the domestic markets to producer cum seller in a market, sense to best realize the returns for their investments, risks and efforts. Extension can play its pivotal role not by mere transfer of technology to farm side but along with it the appropriate market information as well.

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Innovations in Agricultural Policy

This volume is a collection 15 papers attempting to examine the different dimensions of the plight of farmers and the innovative policy innovations needed to overcome it. This note gives a bird’s eye view of each of these papers.

http://www.nias.res.in/docs/Innovations%20in%20Agricultural%20Policy.pdf

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Status of Agricultural Marketing Reforms

Agricultural marketing policy in India has been characterized by State participation in production activities; State intervention in procurement and distribution of foodgrains; directing agricultural economy through regulatory mechanism such as licensing and control on movement, storage; creation of facilitating centres in the form of regulated markets; encouraging co-operative marketing; creation of supporting infrastructure like storage and warehousing; and construction of link roads, market information, marketing extension, etc.

http://www.igidr.ac.in/newspdf/srijit/PP-069-11b.pdf

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Journal of Development Economics

we find that falling groundwater costs generated significant growth in value added per acre for farms. These resulted from investments in minor irrigation which was stimulated by tenancy registration programs implemented by local governments. This helps account for substantial spillover effects of the tenancy reform on non-tenant farms noted in an earlier study. Hence the West Bengal Green Revolution of the 1980s benefited from complementarity between private investment incentives and state-led institutional reforms.

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Agricultural Research and Education for the XII Five Year Plan: 2012‐17

The report gives key objectives, strategy for technology development, their integration and transfer to farmers and major thrust areas. There is exclusive discussion on basic and strategic research and human resource development through education programmes. We hope that the recommendations made here will be useful for increasing the role of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and State Agricultural Universities in promoting the knowledge-intensive agriculture that will result in the inclusive growth.

http://planningcommission.gov.in/aboutus/committee/wrkgrp12/agri/wgrep_research.pdf

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Technology Transfer and Extention : Towards a Second Green Revolution

A series of interventions initiated in mid-1960s that led to the green revolution in cereal production transformed the country from a situation of food deficiency to self sufficiency. The green revolution was however, restricted to productivity improvements in cereals- especially wheat and rice- in the initial decades, primarily grown in irrigated regions. In subsequent decades, productivity increased in other crops, namely oilseeds, sugarcane, cotton, fruits and vegetables. The Green Revolution generally bypassed India’s vast rainfed tracts, especially arid zones, hill and mountain ecosystems and coastal regions, thus exacerbating agro-ecological and economic disparities. Although self sufficiency was attained in food grain production, potential of different crop varieties are yet to be attained.

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Policy & Process Guidelines for promotion of Farmer Producer Organisations<